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Prelude to Hindustani Music

Hindustani music is a sub-genre of the Indian classical music and essentially represents the North Indian tradition of music with vedic ritual and sufi chants. This music is prevalent not only in India but in Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan as well. Hindustani music is an amalgamation of Vedic chants with Persian traditional music and existing folk traditions of ancient India of around 12th century AD when this genre of music is supposed to have originated. For eminent exponents of this stream, honorary titles such as 'Pandit', for Hindus, and 'Ustad' for Muslims, are conferred. The essential system in both streams of Indian classical music- Carnatic and Hindustani- remains the same as the 'raga', the melody, is sung to 'tala' the rhythmic cycle.

 

GRFI music group

Music Research Group, GRFI

This concluding article in the three-part series* on Hindustani & Carnatic Music will take the reader through the nuances of Hindustani music.

 

Raag: Bageshree

The characteristic features of this raaga are as follows.

It is derived from the Thaat KAFI and is usually sung at night. Its Karnatic equivalent: is suddha bhairavi in which there are many kritis.

Melodic pattern

In ascent, there are five notes while descent has all seven notes.

- Araoh (ascent): Ni Sa ga Ma, dha Ni Sa (of high octave)

- Avarho (descent): Sa (of high octave) Ni komal, dha , Ma ga re sa

The chief combination of notes (Chalan or Pakar) is Dha ni komal, sa ma ga komal, ma dha ma ga komal, ma ga komal, re sa.

Vaadi svar (prominent note) is Ma.

Samvaadi svar (consonant of Vaadi svar) Sa.

Aalaap (prelude): Ni (of low octave), dha sa, dha ni komal, sa ma, glide from ma to ga re sa Ga komal, ma dha dha ma ga ga re sa

A typical Bandish

Sthaayi (part I) / Néi Néi dori lagi, (2) / Aba Kahori piyason pyari, (2) / Antaraa (part II) / Laga lagi aba chutata Nahi, (2) / Jolo gatamé sa...sou...Ri (1)

Taanas with swars and aalaaps should be included in the Bandish at the appropriate place

After singing dori

Ni sa gama dhani Saré / SaNi dhama gare Sa_. / Gama dhani Saga Résa / Sani dhama garé Sa_. / Madha NiSa garé SaNi / SaNi dhama garé Sa_. / Dhani Saré Sani dhani / Sani dhama garé Sa_.

After singing lagi

Introduction to Bollywood songs

NiSa gama Saga Madha I gama dhani Madha Nisa

SaNi dhama Nidha Maga I dhama gaga Maga résa

Example

Jaag Dard-e-ishq Jaag: Film Anarkali; Music by C.Ramachandra; Lyrics by Rajindra Krishan; Singers Hemant Kumar & Lata Mangeshkar; 1953.

Dil Ko Hai Tumase Pyar Kyon?: Jagmohan Mitra; Music Director Kamal Dasgupta; Lyrics by Faiyaz Hashmi; 1945-46.

 

Raag: Yaman

The characteristic features of this raaga are as follows:

It is derived from the Thaat KALYAAN the Karnatic equivalent being Kalyaani. It is sung from late evening to midnight.

Melodic Pattern

The following is its melodic pattern. It has all the seven notes with the Note Ma which is teevra (sharp)

- Araoh (Ascent): Ni of low octave, re ga ma (teevra) pa dha ni sa (high octave)

- Avarho (Descent): Sa (high octave) ni dha pa ma (teevra) ga re sa

- Chalan or Pakar: chief combinations of notes: ni of low octave, re ga, ni of low octave, ga, ma (teevra) ga re, ni of low octave, re sa.

- Vaadi svar (prominent note): Ga; Samvaadi svar (consonant of vaadi svar): Ni

- Aalaap (prelude): ni re sa, ni re ga, ni re ni ga, ga re ni re sa, nire gama ga, re ga re, ni re sa

(Characteristic feature: sa and pa are weaker notes thus less used. Aalaapa usually starts from ni of low octave)

A typical Bandish

Sthaayi (1st part):Aba gunana keejiye guni sanga, (2x) / Kya jane guna ki sare, (2x)

Antaraa (2nd part):

Ho guni guni jane gunaki saare (1x) / Bari ber sam za una samajhata (2x) / Baar baar ab koun kahe (2x) / Ek bar kahediini (2x), kaunkahe ab baar baar (1x)

Taanas with swars and aalaaps included in the Bandish at the appropriate place

After singing keejiye

Ni re ga ma dha ni re sa / Sa ni dha pa ma ga re sa / Ga ma dha ni re sa ni dha / Sa ni dha pa ma ga re sa / Pa ma ga ma dha ni re sa / Sa ni dha pa ma ga re sa

After singing sanga

Ni re ga ma re ga ma dha / Ga ma dha ni ma dha ni sa / Sa ni dha pa ni dha pa ma / Dha pa ma ga ma ga re sa

Aalaap

Niresa, nirega, magare, niresa, / nire, niga, nima, garesa, / niregama. Gamapa, pamagare, niresa, / gamagapa, dhapamaga, resa / niregama, regapa, pamagaresa / Mapa, madhapa, madhani, danimapa, / Madhani sani dhapa, sanidhapa magaresa

Example

Ja re badra bairi ja: Film Bahana; Music Director Madan Mohan; Singer Lata Mangeshkar; 1960.

Chhupa lo yun dil men pyar mera: Film Mamta; Music Director Roshan; Lyricist Majrooh Sultanpuri; Singers Lata Mangeshkar & Hemant Kumar.

 

Raag: Maalkauns

The characteristic features of this raaga are as follows:

This raaga has 5 notes in both ascent and descent. Thus notes Re and Pa are absent in this raag. All the notes are komal (flat). It is derived from the Thaat BHAIRAVI, the Karnatic equivalent being Hindolam. It is sung late at night.

Melodic pattern

- Araoh (Ascent): ni komal, sa ga komal, ma dha komal, ni komal, Sa of high octave.

- Avarho (descent): Highigh sa ni komal, dha komal, ma ga komal, sa

- Chalan or Pakar: Chief combination of notes is Dha komal of low octave, ni komal, sa ma ga komal, Ma dha komal, ni komal, dha komal ma, ga komal, sa

- Aalaap: (prelude): Sa dha ni of lower octave, sa, Ni of lower octave, sa ga komal, ma, ma ga komal, sa, sa ga komal, ma dha komal, dha komal, ma, ga komal, ma ga komal, sa

A typical Bandish

Sthaayi (part I): Aé pi moré mandarowa / Saba ranga son jaaagé baagé

Antaraa (part II): Bahuta dinana para prabu daya kina / Moré saba dukhaa dina tyaaagé

Taanas with swars and aalaps included in the Bandish at the appropriate place

After singing pi

Ni sa ga ma dha ni sa ga / Sa ni dha ma ga ma ga sa / Ga ma dha ni sa ga ma ga / Sa ni dha ma ga ma ga sa / Ma dha ni sa dha ni sa ni / Sa ni dha ma ga ma ga sa / Dha ni sa ga sa ni dha ni / Sa ni dha ma ga ma ga sa

After singing mandarowa

Sa ga ma ga ga ma dha ma / Ma dha ni dha dha ni sa ni / Ni sa ga sa dha ni sa ni / Ma dha ni dha ga ma dha ma / Sa ga ma ga ni sa ga ma / Ni sa ga ma dha ni sa sa

Example

Ankhiyan sang ankhiya lagi aaj: Film Bada Aadmi; Music Director Chitra Gupt; Lyrics by Prem Dhawan; Singer Rafi.

 

*This document was released as 'Lecture & Demonstration of Music Carnatic & Hindustani Composers of 20th & 21st Centuries' by the Music Research Group of the 'Groupe de Réflexion Franco- Indien' on the event of its 20th anniversary. Due to article length constraints, we are presenting it here in three parts- Carnatic Composers-I, Carnatic Composers-II & Prelude to the Hindustani Music.

 

Related Program

GRFI 20th anniversary celebrations continue

 

Related Reading

Indians under spotlight- Carnatic Composers- I

Prelude to Hindustani Music

Pandit Jasraj- Indian under spotlight

Subhra Guha- Indian under spotight

The Badrinaths- Indians under spotlight

20th Anniversary of GRFI

 

photo & document courtesy: Mrs. Lalitha Badrinath, GRFI